The change in identity of the wearer for that of the mask is vital, for if the spirit represented does not reside in the image of the mask, the ritual petitions, supplications, and offerings made to it would be ineffectual and meaningless. Upon donning the mask, the wearer sometimes undergoes a psychic change and as in a trance assumes the spirit character depicted by the mask. Have the students tell how the stories are similar. The characters depicted are also prescribed by tradition and enact roles to achieve the desired ends. Psychologically the spectators become associated with the past through the spirit power of the mask, and this often leads the participants to a state of complete absorption or near-frenzy. This meant that particular Native American masks related to the clan they were from. Types Worn: Apart from the face masks there are also types worn around the waist and down to the feet.
Masks are made to house the totem spirit. When a mask takes the form of a broad disk with a plank that rises vertically above the face, as among the Bwa, it is easy to keep in mind that it is representative of a supernatural being. Even so, the mask has a spirit content that is respected and revered, even if it is not showing a being with malignant potential. Represented are fanciful birds, fishes, and animals with distorted or exaggerated features. In western and central Congo Kinshasa , in Africa, large, colourful helmetlike masks are used as a masquerading device when the youth emerges from the initiation area and is introduced to the villagers as an adult of the tribe. The painting also reflects the time and ideas of Sigmund Freud who was also from Vienna, and who identified the main motivating actors of the human psyche to be eros the sexual instinct for the purpose of the continuation of life and thanatos the death instinct for the purpose of ending the anxieties of life.
This concept is delineated in William Golding 's novel, Lord of the Flies. The mask represents the liberation of the inner evil nature of man. The disease mask is most developed among the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka Ceylon , where 19 distinct rakasa, or disease devil masks, have been devised. Ironically, the masks were often so beautifully and intricately made, they often entranced their audiences more than disturbing them. Occasionally an actor interrupts the unseen narrator, the Dalang, who is speaking the play. Such is the power that it holds on certain societies that sometimes only men may look upon them and sometimes only the person who carved them.
A spirit power is also often believed to inhabit the artist's tools so that even these have to be handled in a prescribed manner. Harley, Masks as Agents of Social Control in Northeast Liberia, Peabody Museum Papers 32, no. In Mexico and Guatemala, annual folk festivals employ masks for storytelling and caricature, such as for the Dance of the Old Men and the Dance of the Moors and the Christians. It is the very three dimensional way the mask is made and its various textured forms that indicate what kind of supernatural spirit occupies it. Rather, they serve as symbols for states of being. It can be worn in three different ways: vertically covering the face: as helmets, encasing the entire head, and as crest, resting upon the head, which was commonly covered by material as part of the disguise.
This is true of many mask ceremonies in Africa. It is most impressive because it can be seen as a reality; it expends itself by its very revelation. In Melanesia, the skull of the deceased is often modeled over with clay, or resin and wax, and then elaborately painted with designs that had been used ceremonially by the deceased during his own lifetime. Have them speculate on what may have prompted the creation of the mask. Masking ceremonies in Africa have great cultural and traditional significance. In the novel, the paint frees the boys from the rules and morals established by their parents and teachers, and allows them to act wild and barbaricly. How can we tell if it is symbolic, a reflection of the skin color of the people who made the mask, or just a result of the material they used? Masks are designed to subjugate and control the invisible world.
From the 17th century to the 20th, death masks of famous persons became widespread among European peoples. This is partly because the total artistic qualities of a mask derive both from its exterior forms and from its meaning and function within its cultural. Cylindrical masks, covering the entire head and resting on the shoulders, are of a primal type. Moreau, central to any discussion of Symbolism, contributed to the more literary aspects of Symbolism, choosing his subjects from the Bible or, as here, mythology - at the same time that he was able to point out some of the neuroses of the modern age. They allow the actor to use controlled body movement, even as simple as a turn of the head, to express emotion. Williams, Drama of Orokolo 1940, reprinted 1969 , a classic study of masks of the Gulf of Papua, New Guinea, with fine illustrations and a bibliography; Malcolm Kirk, Man as Art: New Guinea 1981 , with especially good photographs; Donald B.
If all the conventions have been adhered to, the completed mask, when worn or displayed, is regarded as an object suffused with great supernatural or spirit power. This painting takes part in the fashionable pessimism of the age, which identified a cosmos driven by sexual as opposed to sinful urges, part of a blind drive to procreate. The localization of a particular spirit in a specific mask must be considered a highly significant reason for its existence. Assign parts and present a skit based on the chosen story, with students wearing their masks. Sin was associated with sex, and sex was related to procreation and death, with woman as the ultimate source of death.
Though the mask makes many of the boys feel free, they only continue to lower themselves into a pit of regret, destroying everything they have worked for and hurting others who they could formerly trust. It is used to represent or foreshadow the conclusion of the story. The mask is the intermediary between the two forces and indifferent to whoever will emerge the victor in the dangerous struggle between the prisoner and his captor. In religious rituals during these times, the person wearing the mask often becomes the spirit being represented, or at least serves as a medium through which the spirit is allowed to communicate with the people, as in many American Indian and African societies. Masks for protection from disease include the measle masks worn by Chinese children and the cholera masks worn during epidemics by the Chinese and Burmese.