At the end of the school day, she speeds out of the parking lot in her car. The three categories of storm and stress described by Hall are conflict with parents, mood disruption, and risky behavior. Through his work as a teacher, he influenced a number of other leading psychologists including John Dewey and Lewis Terman. This interaction results in the instinctual reawakening of the libidinal forces, which, in turn, can bring about psychological disequilibrium. This type of thinking proceeds from what is possible to what is empirically real Inhelder and Piaget, 1958, p. Other students influenced and taught by Hall included , Henry Goddard, Edmund C. This pattern is characterized by self-control and self-discipline, which Spranger related to a personality type that is striving for power Muuss, 1975, p.
Based on your careful reading and review of the above lesson on the overview, history and theories of adolescent development, outline and describe your own theory of adolescent development. Content on this website is from high-quality, licensed material originally published in print form. It is during the shift from childhood to adolescence that a crucial aspect of personailty development occurs - the change from dependence to independence Muuss, 1975, p. A person is also more likely to experience feelings of depression, self-consciousness, embarrassment, loneliness, and nervousness at this time more than any other time in their lives. He described two different types of aggression, which were relational aggression and physical aggression.
Hollingworth emphasized the idea of continuity of development and the gradualness of change during the adolescent period. Legacy Hall did not start systems of , nor develop coherent theoretical frameworks, nor leave behind loyal followers, but he was a loyal teacher and devoted organizer of psychology. Life and Confessions of a Psychologist 1923. Hall was a major force in organizing the field, focusing on scientific approaches and in 1883 establishing a psychology laboratory at the university. In this 2-volume study, based on the idea that child development recapitulates human evolution, Hall took on a variety of issues and synthesized scholarship from a wide range of disciplines. The body image has time to adjust to these developmental changes so that the individual knows his own body.
Hall received his doctorate in 1878 for a dissertation on muscular perception, the first American doctorate in. Stanley Hall, Spranger believes that this is a period of storm, stress, strain, and crisis, and results in basic personality change. Citing this material Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research or writing a related article. The Review of Higher Education. Energy, exaltation, and supernatural activity are followed by indifference, lethargy, and loathing. Its focus on adolescence fed a growing national concern in the early twentieth century about issues of femininity, masculinity, coeducation, and concern over appropriate information and experience for adolescents growing into adulthood. Hall made psychology functional as a scientific discipline and left it firmly entrenched in American academia.
Two years later he became a professor, which was one of the first chairs in the field of psychology in America. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: Brilliance and nonsense. Fourteen years later in 1904, Hall published his two volume study entitled Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education. To sum up, the individual relives the development of the human race from early animal like primitivism, through a period of savagery, to the more recent civilized ways of life that characterize maturity. Even the direction of his thought processes change.
Such an adolescent may continue to be morbidly preoccupied with what others think of them, or may withdraw and no longer care about themselves and others. The adolescent must assert their autonomy in order to reach maturity Muuss, 1975, p. Biology and Adolescence According to Hall, some of the blame for this period of storm and stress is due to the biological changes of puberty. He attributes these differences to several factors: the ideologies, attitudes, and values that are recognized and emphasized; the way in which different activities are seen as related or unrelated for example, religion and work are more closely related in Mennonite society than in American society as a whole ; and, the varying length of the adolescent period from culture to culture and from social class to social class within a culture. On the other hand, automatically assuming that adolescents must be stormy as they become adults seems to be overly simplistic as well.
This argument is not only an oversimplification but misleading because modern biology does recognize numerous connections between and , explains them using evolutionary theory without recourse to Haeckel's specific views, and considers them as supporting evidence for that theory. Thus, laissez-faire approaches to youth were deemed likely to lead to moral anarchy, and the administrative gaze of teachers, parents, psychologists, play reformers, scouting leaders, and juvenile justice workers was cultivated everywhere. Anna Freud assigns greater importance to puberty as a critical factor in character formation. Such ambiguities and uncertainties are illustrated will by the boy asking or hesitating to ask for his first date. Also, Hall's concept of adolescence states that individuals feel an increase of contradictory actions and emotions.
Studies indicate adolescents who form close attachments with these role models are less likely to engage in delinquent behaviors, form better relationships, and score higher grades in school. According to Robert Havighurst, developmental tasks are defined as skills, knowledge, functions, and attitudes an individual has to acquire at a certain point in his or her life; they are acquired through physical maturation, social expectations, and personal efforts. It is the characteristic of middle-class youth that his social anxiety increases with the onset of adolescence, since he faces new developmental and behavioral tasks, such as preparation for work and heterosexual adjustment. Youth: Its Education, Regiment, and Hygiene. Hall also founded a number of journals to provide a forum for research and scholarship in psychology: American Journal of Psychology, founded in 1887; Pedagogical Seminary now under the title of Journal of Genetic Psychology ; Journal of Applied Psychology; and Journal of Religious Psychology.