Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution. Increased since 1965 made it more difficult for developers to build new housing in response to population growth. One of the reasons that issues such as child care continue to be a struggle many women have to face alone is because women's experiences or perspectives are frequently invisible to policymakers. We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? High pay for business executives and dividends to shareholders are directly at the expense of the workers in their businesses.
For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions. For a simple example, a social custom of leaving all property to sons is largely unworkable in a society with a low reproduction rate because so many families have no sons. Which way it is important is wide open. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 459-468. That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? For a simple example, it might be possible to conceive how American society could have functioned with full gender equality in 1900, but it would extremely difficult to suggest any plausible way that condition could have emerged under any conceivable historical sequence from the social organization of American society in 1850. Going forward, more research is needed to figure out exactly how large a role housing costs played in the post-1980 decline in income convergence, relative to other causes.
Try to do a reasoned analysis, taking into account the readings for this topic. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there. It is true that women worldwide have to contend with low incomes as a result of labour force discrimination, and prejudicial gendered biases in resource allocation within their homes and communities. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. Second, transition plausibility, asking if a conceivable historical path of development could lead from present circumstances to the future scenario.
For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: 1 describe what is unequal; 2 describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; 3 assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed. They are: poverty, social inequality, and relative depravation. There is a correlation between violent crimes and poverty because of the unemployment rates in major cities, the culture of poor areas, and drugs. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain.
This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary e. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. Those studies expose the greater limitations faced by women in becoming economically autonomous. This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies governmental controls over an economy would be an exception.
Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. Further, the income method does not show the differences between men and women in their use of time or their expenditure patterns. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. These discussions often fail to take account of the complex relationship between gender and poverty, argues , and a renewed focus on the time and labour that women invest in bearing the burden of dealing with poverty is now needed.
What does the future hold? Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. I strongly agree with your assessment that links between gender and poverty are over-simplified. In most countries, more men than women work, and they get paid more for similar work. The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. Measurement of poverty from a gender perspective Poverty measurement not only helps make poverty visible but also plays a crucial role in policy development and implementation. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality.
By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously.
In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes that have no biological basis , and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. All class meetings are organized as discussions. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. High-quality care provided by trained professionals in early childhood development is expensive for all families.