Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Stalker, The Management of Innovation London, Tavistock Publications, 1961 ; Harold J. Employees derive the satisfaction of social, esteem and self-actualization needs within this kind of environment. On the job, people are motivated by the seneeds, and the manager can learn to recognize these needs in workers and use them to motivate behaviour. Man can exercise self-control and self-direction in the service of objectives to which he is committed. Even with our limited knowledge, however, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities.
Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. Theory X merely satisfied their lower-level physical needs and could not hope to be as productive. While there is a more personal and individualistic feel, this leaves room for error in terms of consistency and uniformity. Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. On the other hand, if they perceive that performance does not make any difference to their rewards, the instrumentality will be low.
As a result, Theory Y followers may have a better relationship with their boss, creating a healthier atmosphere in the workplace. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below. The theory postulated that people are motivated by multiple needs, which could be arranged in a hierarchy. Assuch considerable time and attention must be devoted to constructing ways of developing the achievement motive at the managerial level.
It might seem that the optimal approach to human resource management would lie somewhere between these extremes. For many enterprises, given the new needs of younger employees for more autonomy, and the rapid rates of social and technological change, it may well be that the more participative approach is the most appropriate. Differences between the two container plants are significant at. Competence motivation is most likely to be fulfilled when there is a fit between task and organization. In contrast, Theory Y managers assume employees are self-directed, enjoy responsibility and meaningful work, and are willing to work for organizational goals or causes they believe in. Using this theory in these types of work conditions allows employees to specialize in particular work areas which in turn allows the company to mass-produce a higher quantity and quality of work.
According to this theory, pure work motivation consists of financial incentives. The stories are then analysed to find certain themes that represent various human needs. Therefore, there was less need for individuals to have a say in decisions concerning the work process. An organization with this style of management encourages participation and values individuals' thoughts and goals. Empxtrack — an is based on such theories and helps organizations to transform their human resource practices.
Theory X Theory X assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. Douglas McGregor receive this qualification on several occasions. Thus: The first part asked a participant to write creative and imaginative stories in response to six ambiguous pictures. Thus, hygiene factors, when absent, increase dissatisfaction with the job. William Ouchi, Theory Z, Avon, 1982. In general, Theory X style managers believe their employees are less intelligent, lazier, and work solely for a sustainable income. While there is a need to further investigate how people who work in different settings differ in their psychological makeup, one important implication of the Contingency Theory is that we must not only seek a fit between organization and task, but also between task and people and between people and organization.
This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not essentially motivated to perform. Drawing on newly emerging psychological principles, Douglas McGregor's Theory Y offered a different model. The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. She is also a Content writer, Business Coach and Company Trainer and lives in the Netherlands Europe. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can do so.
This is not always true. This phenomenon of variable human behaviour is overlooked by McGregor. In her off-time, Tyler enjoys spending as much time as possible with her two amazing kids and husband. As a consequence, Stockton managers used a less structured pattern of formal practices that left the scientists in the lab free to respond to the changing task situation. Because of this, there was a definite feeling by the scientists that their particular expertise was not being effectively used in choosing projects.