K's class reflected on their learning, making connections between their particular project and the local ecosystem. The titles emphasize some important components of the assessment process. Maybe the teaching strategies used during the initial instruction were inappropriate for these students, but the corrective instruction proved more effective. This usually entails identification of somewhat discrete stages that will help the students to understand what is required to move toward the goal. Administrators also may be interested in the material presented in this chapter.
During the school day, opportunities often arise for producing useful assessment information for teachers and students. . Subject-Matter Goals Effective formative assessment must be informed by theories to ensure that it elicits the important goals of science, including a student 's current understanding and procedural capability. A recent survey showed, for example, that fewer than half the states require competence in assessment for licensure as a teacher Stiggins, 1999. Research suggests that teachers often look for evidence that affirms their own performance Airasian, 1991 and do not easily modify judgments on individual student achievement Goldman, 1996; Rosenbaum, 1980.
In the first scenario, conferences with students allow Ms. One responsibility of the teacher is to use meaningful learning experiences as meaningful assessment experiences. We must allow for practice. R felt that the students should work together to discuss and share ideas, but she suggested that each student might want to have an instrument at the end to play and to take home. Abundant assessment opportunities exist in each of these examples.
Good records also can serve to address issues of accountability, a topic that will be discussed in the next chapter. Instead, the teacher must use approaches that accommodate differences in students' learning styles and intelligences Sternberg, 1994. As a final effort, the class could prepare a concert for other third grades. In this sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made. How is it being used to inform instruction? Indeed, Hein and Price 1994 assert that anything a student does can be used for assessment purposes. In discussions of an exemplary piece of work, she encourages the students to become as specific as possible.
K keeps herself informed on the working status of the different groups. These opportunities are part of the natural flow of classroom life, indistinguishable for her and for the students from collecting data, discussing findings, planning next steps, drawing conclusions, and communicating findings about the main concepts they are expected to learn. A good analogy for this is the road test that is required to receive a driver's license. For an assessment to make valid claims about a student' s ability to conduct inquiry, the assessment would need to assess the range or abilities and understandings comprised in the construct of inquiry. Because of the initial low grades you received during the process of learning to drive, your final grade would not accurately reflect your ability to drive a car. As noted previously, no one system or collection of strategies will serve all teachers. The usefulness of assessment does not stop at teachers collecting information in the course of their teaching and providing feedback.
I think that the water and the calcium chloride produced the heat. This reduces the amount of English that they must produce themselves. The time you spend with students organizing and reviewing portfolios or classroom work is time well-spent. These are times when you and your students can review accumulated portfolio work, stepping back to look at work over time. For years, assessment has been used to sort and place students in such a way that all students do not have access to quality science programs Darling-Hammond, 1994; Oakes, 1985, 1990. Use portfolios to celebrate accomplishments as well as to identify needs. Faculty meetings devoted to examining classroom assessment results and developing alternative strategies can be highly effective.
Developing ideas for corrective instruction and enrichment activities can be difficult, especially if teachers believe that they must do it alone, but structured professional development opportunities can help teachers share strategies and collaborate on teaching techniques Guskey, 1998, 2000b. Articulate specific skills and competencies. Instead, assessments must be followed by high-quality, corrective instruction designed to remedy whatever learning errors the assessment identified see Guskey, 1997. In this case, classroom teaching is reshaped immediately as a result of assessments made of the students' understanding. In this paper, the author investigates how the working assessment theories and practices of preservice teachers change in the enactment of those theories and practices in a mentored learning environment. And third, the results that teachers receive usually lack the level of detail needed to target specific improvements Barton, 2002; Kifer, 2001.
The question arises, however, as to the feedback they should be giving about language errors. The document states: Students need the opportunity to evaluate and reflect on their own scientific understanding and ability. Shouldn't students display initiative and personal accountability? It stayed pink but it got really hot. There are numerous types of alternative assessment which reduce or even remove the language input and output demands of a task. Such a shift in the concept of assessment cannot simply be imposed, any more than any new concept can be understood without the student becoming an active participant in the learning.
With this method, you can systematically collect descriptive records of a variety of student work over time that reflects growth toward the achievement of specific curricular objectives. The ability to self-assess understanding is an essential tool for self-directed learning. However, she does not control variables in her next experiment, when she combines calcium chloride and water. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 18 1 , 23—27. In addition, by looking across portfolios, you will be able to analyze your instruction. The idea of keeping assessments together in an assessment binder and the use of the organizational grid as a tool to ensure both summative and formative assessments- is just a good use of a teacher's time and energy. Students chose many of the criteria by which they wish their peers to evaluate them, and, with Ms.