In the savanna zone of Africa, for example, farmers dig holes with a hoe one pace apart and plant maize seed in each hole, without any other form of seedbed preparation. Soil provides anchorage to plants and trees. In this, usually early maturing crop varieties are selected for cultivation. Mulching is a good practice for conservation of soil moisture. Systems utilizing hay are most effective in reducing erosion. Eliminating the use of nitrogen fertilizer and fungicides can increase yields and protect crops from drought and flooding. Soil is a very important constituent, and is developed by a long process of weathering and disintegration of rocks, which turn into sand or clay.
Biological Measures: The following are the biological methods which are helpful in checking the soil erosion: 1. Lutz and Chandler 1946 cited the following points in support of the vegetational check of erosion: a Infiltration of water is favored due to high porosity of soil under vegetation. Soil Conservation is important because if we run out of healthy soil, we would be unable to plant the crops that are necessary to feed all of the people and animals on earth. Reduction Of Impervious Surfaces — Driveways patios and paved pathways allow precipitation to flow freely off them. Green Manures — Green manures are a few different crops that can be grown, not for produce or food usage, but grown in order to fertilize the farm land on which it grows. State forest departments in India have already undertaken this practice, although in very restricted areas and have met with good success. Types of conservation measures Certain conservation measures can reduce soil erosion.
Similarly, certain farming practices like no-till and contour plowing help prevent loosening of the soil. If runoff in the field is still too rapid, it may be necessary to control it further and promote absorption by cutting contour furrows at intervals on the slope. One of those slices represents land that is not suitable for farming swamps, deserts, arctic regions, etc. These may be legumes or grasses. The strips should be across the slope. Mineralization — To help crops reach higher yields or full potential, sometimes crushed rock or chemical supplements are added to the farmland, this helps combat mineral depletion. The living mulch helps to prevent crusting, controls erosion, and improves soil filth.
We ignore its existence, disregard its importance and hardly take efforts to conserve it. The plants are thriving well and have checked erosional losses of soil to a good degree. Plants extract water and nutrients from the soil. Terracing also helps conserve soil moisture and improves groundwater storage and crop yields. Fertilization and Maintenance of Soil Fertility 6. This should be seeded to a suitable perennial grass as it provides a convenient place for turning farm machinery.
Fields of a slope steeper than 15 per cent or 1 in 6 should be withdrawn from ploughing as they are not usually worth the labour of making benches very close together. The measures to be followed must be patterned along the nature's own methods of conservation. By watering and settling the soil, one can prevent soil erosion from the blowing wind. Collected water is held to allow for maximum infiltration or is carried to a suitable outlet away from the cropland. The almost-omnipresent soil is taken for granted.
Some strips may be allowed to lie fallow while in others different crops may be sown e. Strip cropping is very effective and practical means for controlling soil erosion. These are native crop options that enhance the soil. Silt Retention Dam: The silt retention dams are constructed below the watershed which have small percentage of row crops and protected by terrace or other suitable means of erosion control. When these worms excrete egesta, this sits in the soils and gives the crops many nutrients which are absorbed via the roots of the plants. Soil erosion by wind can be checked or reduced if the soil is covered by vegetation. Contour Buffer Strips Planting bands of permanent vegetation across the slopes on the contour.
Crop Rotations Alternating crops grown in a field according to a planned sequence. To reduce the velocity of run-off water and to retain it for long period so as to allow maximum water to be absorbed and held in the soil. The process of preparing soil for plowing is known as tilling. Unless kept in good condition, terraces may cause more erosion than if they were never built. Plant a Rain Garden A is a shallow depression in your yard which will collect precipitation washing over impervious surfaces.
Thus, contour farming reduces run off, saves more water for crops, reduces soil erosion and increases the yield of crops Fig. The Kans grass Saccharum munja should also be planted in the back of these plantations so as to encourage siltation. Thus, growing of leguminous plants is one of the important methods for maintaining soil fertility. Another disadvantage is that management measures are often not clear-cut; they require great flexibility and responsiveness, not only initially, but over the years that follow. If grass is growing between the holes, it is lightly slashed or left untouched. Soil Conservation Why It Is Important Soil conservation is when you prevent soil erosion by planting new plants, taking care of plants, or keeping soil from being contaminated. Various crops ripen at different times of the year and are harvested at intervals.
As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. In the 1950s, there was serious gully erosion in sandstone at Pohangina in the Manawatū. Your roof, after all, is another impervious surface. Maintaining the correct value of soil pH, is thus essential for soil conservation. The benefits of rotations in soil conservation include: i Crop rotation provides high degree of protection to the soil thereby reducing soil erosion. Due to these side effects, the no-tilling strategy is used to conserve soil health. It increases the porosity of soil thereby increased infiltration and percolation capacity of soil which, in turn, reduces the runoff and erosion hazards.
Crop Rotation: The crops in a rotation may be cereals, legumes, a grass or legume or grass- legume mixture. A vigorous crop reduces the hazards of erosion by dissipating the impact of falling raindrops, reducing splash erosion, retarding the velocity of runoff water and holding of soil by root anchorage. Â Planting trees on sloped surfaces. Fluvial erosion This occurs when running water gouges shallow channels or deep gullies into the soil. In this a number of narrow based ridges or bunds are constructed at distance of 1into 2inacross the slope along the contour. These broad base terraces can be farmed with modern machinery. Fertilization and Maintenance of Soil Fertility: Soil fertility is kingpin in soil and water conservation which helps to reduce runoff and consequently erosion is automatically minimised.